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    傈僳族民歌

    發布時間:2007-09-28來源:admin

          傈僳族是一個能歌善舞的民族,他們用本民族的樂器——“其奔”伴奏歌唱,邊唱邊跳,所唱之調稱“其奔木刮”。因其使用的伴奏樂器類似漢族的小三弦,因此也有稱為三弦調的。怒江傈僳族自治州的其奔木刮主要流傳于瀘水縣。
          其奔木刮的內容十分豐富,大都為傈僳人生活、生產勞動、狩獵、愛情、婚嫁、民風民俗以及描寫動物的題材。歌詞生動詼諧,曲調輕快活潑,極富舞蹈律動。“木刮”是一種古老的敘事歌,亦被稱為史詩。一般由老年人或中年人演唱,主要內容是天、地、人、事物和景色。許多傈僳族口傳長詩都通過“木刮”形式來進行演唱。吟唱不受時間地點約束;唱詞有詩的韻律,曲調與詞的格式、韻律、語言聲調能密切結合,旋律性較強,易于理解和傳唱。“木刮”唱詞內容有深刻內涵,一般只有閱歷豐富、善于表達者才能做到。“木刮”有兩種演唱方法,開頭都有一段固定的唱詞作引子,稱之為“木刮基”(即歌源),唱完引子接著唱其他內容,或唱史詩或即興創詞演唱。“木刮”曲調和歌源曲調基本一致,僅只在演唱時根據不同內容、感情及語言聲調,在演唱速度上或某幾個音上作一些適當的語氣調整,使詞曲與所要表達的情感密切結合。
          伴奏樂器“其奔”為當地人自制的樂器,也被稱為“傈僳琵琶”。“其奔”以整塊黃桑木或櫻桃木制作,下端挖空,蒙上黃木板作共鳴箱,張4根金屬弦,因其不同的定弦,又分為三弦彈奏和四弦彈奏。怒江的“其奔”形制與其他地區的傈僳族略為不同。其奔木刮的曲目較多,大都短小精悍,不管田邊地角、山村野外,不拘地點場合都可隨意彈唱,是傈僳族生活中重要的文化娛樂項目。
          其奔木刮主要以節日期間或集會場合的集體活動、集體對歌等方式進行傳承,現基本上形成老、中、青三代傳承體系。

     

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