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  • 手機網站 設為首頁加為收藏歡迎訪問云南省非物質文化遺產保護中心網站
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    拉祜族史詩《牡帕密帕》

    發布時間:2007-09-28來源:admin

          《牡帕密帕》流傳于思茅市瀾滄拉祜族自治縣,是拉祜族“波闊嘎闊”(一種民間演唱敘事古歌的形式) 演唱的一部長篇創世史詩。《牡帕密帕》形成于拉祜族漫長的古代社會,拉祜族在長期游獵采集和遷徙過程中,產生了萬物有靈信仰,出現了包括厄薩產生、造天地、造日月、物種的起源、人種由來等神話傳說。
          《牡帕密帕》講述拉祜族開天辟地的故事,記錄了造天造地、創造萬物、繁衍人類、制造工具、發展生產、分配制度等。整部長詩共17或19個篇目,分為厄莎誕生、造天造地、造日月星辰、造山河湖泊、造萬事萬物、種葫蘆育人、兄妹婚配繁衍后代(拉祜族祖先扎迪娜迪)、第一代人、民族的形成、分季節、兄妹分居、火的發現、造農具、蓋房子、農耕生產、過年過節、種棉花、醫藥、結親緣等。主要由歌手“嘎木科”演唱,伴有合唱和輪唱,通常在傳統節日期間或宗教儀式上進行。旋律簡單,只有一個調式,曲調通俗流暢,歌詞格律固定,對偶句居多,易于上口和傳唱。
          《牡帕密帕》演唱活動扎根于民間,演唱方式簡單,人們圍著火塘,飲酒聽歌,通宵達旦。現在由于詩歌共2300余行,大約需要三天三夜才能唱完。曲目神話色彩濃郁,想象力豐富,堪稱拉祜族的歷史文化百科全書。主要靠父母輩言傳身教,年輕人耳濡目染,代代相傳,無特定傳人。由于現代文化的沖擊,演唱活動漸少,后繼乏人,僅瀾滄縣竹塘鄉大塘子村、富邦鄉半山村有2~3名可以完整演唱《牡帕密帕》的藝人,年齡最高者已近80歲。目前,經過收集整理,已出版《牡帕密帕》(云南人民出版社,1978年,劉輝豪整理),《牡帕密帕·古格戛木科》(拉祜文,云南民族出版社,1984年,李文漢整理),《牡帕密帕》(拉祜文和漢文對照,云南民族出版社,1989年,李扎約整理)等書,《牡帕密帕》全部唱段已收入《拉祜族民間文學集成》(中國民間文藝出版社,1988年出版)。

     

     

     

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