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  • 手機網站 設為首頁加為收藏歡迎訪問云南省非物質文化遺產保護中心網站
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    格薩爾史詩

    發布時間:2007-09-28來源:admin

          藏族史詩《格薩爾》又被譯為《格薩爾王傳》、《格薩爾傳奇》等,是廣泛流傳于云南、四川、西藏、甘肅、青海等省區藏族地區的一部家喻戶曉、人人喜愛的長篇英雄史詩,它的詩行已被確認為30萬~150萬行,被譽為世界最長的史詩。在云南主要流傳于迪慶藏族自治州及麗江等地廣大藏族、普米族和部分納西族、傈僳族中。

          《格薩爾》以描寫戰爭為主,有“四方四大戰役”或“四大降魔史”,《姜嶺大戰》為其中之一,講述格薩爾與薩旦王激戰的故事。這場戰爭發生在云南西北地區,具有濃郁的地方風土特色,已正式翻譯整理和出版。《格薩爾》按版本可分為兩類:一種是本子分為若干章的“分章本”,一種是本子分為若干部的“分部本”。雖然版本不同,但基本都是講述格薩爾一生中的大事,如格薩爾在天上、下界投生、與珠牡結婚和賽馬稱王、降伏北方妖魔、降伏霍爾等。云南已搜集到《格薩爾》各種資料20多種,其中有與其他省區內容相同者,亦有內容獨特者。如在德欽縣發掘出版的《加嶺傳奇之部》,以歌頌藏漢友誼為主要內容,書中的山名、地名、風俗等都是云南獨有,具有顯著的地方特色。
            格薩爾是藏族民間文學中的一個典型人物,人們采用浪漫主義手法,通過各種神奇的故事來歌頌這位藏族人民理想中的古代英雄。從民間流傳的各種有關他的故事中可以看出,格薩爾的理想就是當時廣大藏族人民的理想,他的行為就是當時藏族人民的愿望。全部作品主要體現了愛國、愛民、反對頭人、反對宗教壓迫的精神,故事敘述的事件多與人民生活直接有關,格薩爾所做的事與藏族人民的利益密切相關,這是史詩深受廣大藏民喜愛并普遍流傳的根本原因。
          《格薩爾》在云南除了有為數不少的抄本和少量刻本流傳外,還有一批以口頭說唱《格薩爾》聞名的藏族民間藝人“中肯”(意為專門說唱《格薩爾》的藝人)。在說唱中,不同人物有不同調子,各人物在不同場合下又唱不同的調子。整部史詩有40~50種不同的唱調。

     

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